Norway has an almost fully renewable electricity supply, yet is also one of the world's largest exporters of oil and gas. It has committed to challenging emissions reduction targets that will have to be met largely by cuts in the transportation sector. Beyond this, the country also recognises an obligation to contribute to sustainable energy use beyond its borders.
The intention is to meet these challenges with energy innovation that will have an economic benefit for the country, and it is these considerations that led to the formulation of a national hydrogen strategy in 2003.
In 2012 the Norwegian Hydrogen Council published its second Action Plan for the hydrogen initiative. It sets out a vision for Norway’s role in an international hydrogen market: to be one of the global leaders and export both technology and sustainably produced hydrogen.
This report provides an overview of the Norwegian energy context and the implications for hydrogen and fuel cells. It takes a look at some of the new technology being developed for clean hydrogen production and reviews progress in implementing hydrogen refuelling stations and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). This has been sufficient for the country to emerge as one of the candidate early markets for the commercial rollout of FCEV.
2. Energy in Norway
2.1 Supply, Consumption and Emissions
2.2 Facilitating Transformation
'Minimising CO2 from Norway’s Natural Gas'
2.3 Adding Low-Carbon Capacity
'Norway: A Green Battery for Europe?'
2.4 Implications for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
'The NorWays Study'
3. The Norwegian Hydrogen Strategy
3.1 State Initiative
3.2 First Action Plan 2007–2010
3.3 Second Action Plan 2012–2015
'NHC Recommendations for National Lighthouse Projects'
'The Norwegian Hydrogen Forum'
'Utsira: Demonstrating Wind to Hydrogen'
4. New Technology for Hydrogen Production
4.1 Electrolysis and Renewables
4.2 Sorption-Enhanced Steam Methane Reforming
4.3 Microwave Plasma Method
5. Implementing Hydrogen in Road Transport
5.1 The HyNor Project
5.2 Key Initiatives in Scandinavia
'Hydrogen in Akershus and Oslo: a Regional Approach'
5.3 From Demonstration to Commercialisation
5.4 Existing Hydrogen Refuelling Stations
'R&D at the Oslo Gaustad Hydrogen Station'
5.5 Fuel Cell Vehicle Deployments
'Fuel Cells in Shipping'
6. Concluding Remarks
'Norwegian Engagement in R&D Projects Under the FCH JU'